Species Detail

Zea mays L.
Corn; Maize numerous varieties


Scientific Name:  
Zea mays L.
Common Name:  
Corn; Maize numerous varieties
Myaamia Name:  
miincipi generic
Uses:  
Customs, Technology
Harvest Seasons:  
Undetermined
Habitats:  
Undetermined
Locations:  
Seven Pillars
Growth Forms:  
Undetermined

Myaamia Archival Sources  
Zea mays L.
Reference Source Reference Type Archival Data Comments
No Reference Specified Related Info  On April 12, 2002 and May 7th, 2002; the annual planting of white corn took place at the Tribal farm outside Commerce; OK
No Reference Specified Description 
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  A reddened stick was shaken as a way to guard a crop field.
No Reference Specified Use - Food  sagamite and corn bread offered to visitors.
No Reference Specified Use - Food  grown for hominy.
No Reference Specified Use - Food  Miami white corn was cut off the cob green and dried on the
No Reference Specified Use - Technology  old-style quail traps made with a hole and about twenty forked sticks; corn used as bait in the hole
No Reference Specified Use - Food  cultivated corn as a staple.
No Reference Specified Description  Miami white corn--has very starchy consistency when in milk stage; will make your fingers white with milk when kernels are crushed; unique appearance with deep red roots and red silks; long ear of only eight rows so it looks skinny
No Reference Specified Use - Food  corn flour made of white and yellow corn.
No Reference Specified Description 
No Reference Specified Use - Food  corn meal made.
No Reference Specified Description 
No Reference Specified Use - Food  uncooked hominy is called
No Reference Specified Use - Material  husks used to make baskets. Cob drilled out to make pipe to smoke corn silk
No Reference Specified Use - Food  cultivated and eaten
No Reference Specified Use - Technology  fodder
No Reference Specified Use - Food  corn cultivated in large tracts and made into traditional dishes. Harvesting celebrated. General Wilkiinson and his U.S. military expedition; attacked the Indian village near the mouth of the Eel River on the Wabash in 1791;
No Reference Specified Use - Technology  trade white corn a prized trade item
No Reference Specified Use - Food  Miami white corn part of contemporary quiche recipe
No Reference Specified Use - Food  popcorn; peenkiteeki miincipi; lit. corn that explodes by heat
No Reference Specified Use - Food  Miami corn cultivated. Seeds from Bruce Thorington Miami
No Reference Specified Use - Food  white corn meal makes corn mush; a traditional dish in Barbara Mullins household
No Reference Specified Use - Food  siinipikiinkweehaminki probable phonemic from Costa 2006;
No Reference Specified Use - Food  corn dried on a rack.
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  White corn is open pollinated and must be protected from cross pollination with other varieties/hybrids; when characterisitcs other than those of the traditional white corn are noticed e.g. dents; those seeds are not kept for planting
No Reference Specified Use - Food  Barbara Mullins grandmother; Ethel Goodbo Gamble made hominy in their Commerce home; by putting wood ashes into a bucket; filling it with water; and letting it sit. The water became lye-water; as they called it. Corn would then be placed into the bucket and the water would do its work--loosening the hull from the corn and swelling the corn up. Then the corn was rinsed in clear water many times. This was used to make edible dried corn
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  soldiers reported marching through five miles of Miami corn fields--being able to see Miami cornfields on both sides of the Maumee River for as far as one could see
No Reference Specified Use - Food  Miami corn dishes: kitasakani parched corn; mahtohkatwi cooked hominy; mihtohkatoopowi corn soup; and corn bread
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  Fish; small suckers that were bony; were put with hills of corn; one per hill
No Reference Specified Use - Food 
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info 
No Reference Specified Use - Food  prepared with milk.
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  General Anthony Wayne wrote:
No Reference Specified Use - Food  corn made into hominy.
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info 
No Reference Specified Use - Food  parched corn.
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  corn planted along banks of Wabash.
No Reference Specified Use - Food  sagamite is a meal of indian corn boiled in water and seasoned with fat.
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  July is the Hilling corn moon; or Utshetsheekutaa; or Utsheketomingk; August is the time when the corn is fit to be eaten; or Keeshingwaa
No Reference Specified Use - Food  men mostly hunt but help the women in planting and hoeing of corn
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  At the end of March or the beginning of April; they gather wood to be able to plant at the beginning of May without being interrupted by having to gather wood to endure cold spells in May. . . . When they wish to finish their sowing early; they offer a feast of flat sides of beef with mixed corn inside of it; and invite as many women as they need to spade up their fields. These do not refuse such invitations; and if any of those invited fail to come; they come next day to offer their excuses and to tell the reasons which prevent their coming. At the beginning of June they hill up their corn; and after that the village sets out on the buffalo hunt.
No Reference Specified Use - Unknown 
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  Corn was harvested communally and taken into the Miami dwellings. It was spread out and then gathered up again
No Reference Specified Use - Food  corn storage technique.
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  The Illinois tribe corn cycle began at the end of March or early April when people were returning from winter camps to summer villages. An abundance of wood was gathered by the women so they would not neet to gather during corn planting in early May. Most of the corn was planted and hilled up by the first of June and at that time most villagers went on a buffalo hunt for up to six weeks. After that; at about the end of July; the first corn was harvested and dried. There was a second harvest at the end of August as well
No Reference Specified Use - Food 
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info 
No Reference Specified Use - Food 
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  Timing of corn planting in relationship to hunting:
No Reference Specified Use - Customs  funeral.
No Reference Specified Use - Technology  pieces of wood and Indian corn husks; and stones were thrown at the Jesuit fathers when they announce mass and catechisms
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  The women tend the corn fields; primarily. --
No Reference Specified Use - Food  in 1746; the Weas at the mouth of the Ohio [modern day Cairo; Illinois] were reported to be cultivating corn [referred to as
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  Corn storage is done by means of lined holes in the ground; especially when they have to leave their village or to hide it from enemies; or by drying and hanging bunches of ears; or threshing.
No Reference Specified Use - Food  corn drying sheds were used and covered with tall grasses to keep rain out.
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  Corn is stored in caches for use in summer.
No Reference Specified Use - Food  dry corn was cooked by first rinsing in cool water; putting rinsed corn in a large pot and covering with water; then cooking over low heat for 20-30 minutes. Seasoning was added for flavor
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  Corn is planted two times a year.
No Reference Specified Use - Food  hominy made from corn.
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  listed a number of corn terms relating to its stages of growth and cultivation: kiisiinkwe--just growing; not yet ripe literally; growing; p799; kishingwe--July literally; roasting ear moon; p799; kishingwe kilswa--June by the Miamis p1321; kiniisiinkwee--becoming large and growing to maturity p800
No Reference Specified Use - Food/Customs  corn soup and hominy are considerd feast foods in certain occasions.
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  Dunn noted the term kiisiinkwia; taken down from Finley Peoria meaning August corn filled out
No Reference Specified Use - Medicinal  component of medicine bag.
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  Gatschet ca. 1895 listed the Miami-Illinois term
No Reference Specified Use - Food  method of drying corn.
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  Miami corn sometimes grows short; sometimes tall
No Reference Specified Use - Technology  red worms found inside cobs of ears of corn on low parts of corn plant were obtained and used as live fishing bait
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  At a Miami village at the head of the Maumee River; a U.S. military detachment found the Miamis had burnt their town; but still existing were
No Reference Specified Use - Food 
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  At the Wea village near the mouth of Wea Creak; on the middle Wabash; Weas had their summer village and extensive cornfields for over 72 years 1717-1790
No Reference Specified Use - Food  corn cooked in a large black kettle; also used for vegetable soup and chili
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  Gatschet ca. 1895 recorded that when wiihkoowia; the whippoorwill is first heard in spring; indicates the time of corn cultivation for the Miami; where its call is ziwashikoko meaning go to planting in Miami
No Reference Specified Use - Food  hominy made from corn [not necessarily Miami varieties]. The shelled corn was covered with wtaer; a little bit of lye; from wood ashes; was added to soften the husk of the corn
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  Dunn 1909 lists a term
No Reference Specified Use - Customs  corn silks smoked occasionally with corn cob pipe
No Reference Specified Use - Food  corn used during pork curing
No Reference Specified Use - Food  parched corn brought on a hunt; cooked by boiling and when almost done; adding beef tallow. The traditional story Wilaktwa tells of some Miami on a hunt; and cooking this dish when some enemies came upon their camp. Wilaktwa asked them to wait and eat with them first before they fought. When the soup was heated up he threw it in their faces and on them; blinding them all. Then he beat them to death.
No Reference Specified Use - Food  modern traditional crop. In the traditional story of Young Thunder William Pecongah; he describes the crops he had growing on his land 160 acres of reserve in central Indiana.
No Reference Specified Use - Food  corn grown on fertile bottomlands of St. Joseph River
No Reference Specified Use - Customs  a harvest festival concludes the corn and other crop harvesting. The festival and feast is held in the night
No Reference Specified Use - Food  green corn prepared for village guests of distinction
No Reference Specified Use - Food  sagamity is made from corn.
No Reference Specified Use - Food  rotten corn eaten as a
No Reference Specified Use - Food  bread made.
No Reference Specified Use - Food  corn cultivated.
No Reference Specified Use - None  ladles; used for eating sagamite; among other things; were made out of the skulls of cattle.
Botanical Sources  
Zea mays L.
Reference Source Notes Data Comments
No Reference Specified   Occurring as a cultivated species and occasionally as an escape throughout eastsern and western Miami lands
No Reference Specified   Miami corn was and is unique to the Great Lakes Region
Related Sources  
Zea mays L.
Reference Source Notes Data Comments
No Reference Specified   Miami white corn was planted in the spring 2001 by Mildred Walker and other tribal members at Tribal farm outside Commerce; OK
No Reference Specified   The Shawnee have a dance called the Bread Dance; held in April. Dance preceded by a ball game played etween the men and women; and the twenty kernels used in scoring were planted by one of the women chiefs; after which all the corn could be planted
No Reference Specified   Miami white corn was grown by Anna Marks Lora Siders parents; sister of Joe Mongosa and other Mongosas; and LaMoines parents. This corn stopped being grown when the sweet corn came along. His brother made hominy out of it; called it squaw corn.
No Reference Specified   There were some Miami men that assumed the dress and character of women; associated with other women; and took equal share in planting; hoeing and gathering of corn; and in other domestic activities.
No Reference Specified   Corn preparation: The Delaware would bring the corn in by the wagon loads; and drop it into boiling water for about three minutes; then dumped onto clean wagon sheets and husked and cut by young folks. They would take a spoon and with the handle down; press down right between the rows; resulting in whole kernel corn. They would do this all day long; and if the got a whole row out without it breaking; then they got to go around and get a kiss from whoever we wanted. The Delawares did it differently; cutting their corn and then scraping the cob; as did the Potawatomies; but just for certain dishes.The regular everyday corn was always whole kernel
No Reference Specified   The Delaware have a number of types of corn; for different uses; including dried; hard corn for corn soup; corn that is scraped off and let set for bread
No Reference Specified   Billie Smiths Shawnee father raised corn; and would harvest the corn stalks in the fall. He would fashion a birds body out of corn stalks and make it so wings came out of the center
No Reference Specified   Women helped tend the corn; which could be used as a focus of attack of enemy tribes:
No Reference Specified   Traditional story regarding origin of Miami white corn.