Species Detail

Bark
bark


Scientific Name:  
Bark
Common Name:  
bark
Myaamia Name:  
alakiihkwi
Uses:  
Material, Customs, Technology
Harvest Seasons:  
Summer, Fall, Spring
Habitats:  
Oak Forest including Oak-Hickory, Beech-Oak-Maple Mixed Mesophytic, Dry Prairie grasslands, Conifer Shrubland and Forest, Conifer Swamp some deciduous domts.
Locations:  
Undetermined
Growth Forms:  
Shrub

Myaamia Archival Sources  
Bark
Reference Source Reference Type Archival Data Comments
No Reference Specified Use - Material  canoes made from bark.
No Reference Specified Use - Material  bark peeled for unknown purpose [reason not noted; but this was a buffalo hunting camp and their actions were probably related to making camp during the buffalo hunt] p. 313 –
No Reference Specified Use - Material  "They use the same term for bark boards; and two of these apacoyas; one on top of the other; protect one from the rain as well as the best blanket. These are the cabins which they use in autumn and winter; even if they leave their canoes; the women carry these on their backs p. 340-341 –
No Reference Specified Use - Food  used in cooking macopines white water lily rhizome in a pit; roots placed on aquatic grass which was laid over hot rocks in a pit; then roots covered with dry grass and bark p. 346 –
No Reference Specified Use - Customs  funeral. "If the deceased has been a chief of war parties that have brought in prisoners they plant a tree forty or fifty feet long; which several men go to fetch at the request of the relatives; who give a feast. From this tree they peel the bark and color it with the shades of red and black and make pictures of the chief and the prisoners he has taken; tie a bundle of small logs representing as many persons as he has killed; which they also fasten to the stake and then they plant it beside the tomb" p. 358 –
No Reference Specified Use - Material  shingles made of bark for the houses; fastened to rafters by wooden pins Interview with Edward Peckham –
No Reference Specified Use - Material  spring shelter made of logs covered with bark. "The respective bands assemble together in the spring at their several ordinary places of resort; where some have rude cabins; made of small logs; covered with bark; but; more commonly; some poles stuck in the ground and tied together with pliant slips of bark; and covered with large sheets of bark; or a kind of mats made of flags" p. 16-17 –
No Reference Specified Use - Technology  bark used as a hand-held torch. Trowbridge describes its use in courtship; where a young man would go secretly into the lodge of the parents of the girl of his interest; using a bark torch for light p. 41 –
No Reference Specified Use - Material  paapaamootekutauwee is a game of shooting where a ball of bark is thrown in the air and shot at with an arrow. Betting is involved. p. 62 –
No Reference Specified Use - Material  bark used for summer hunting cabins. "The women had thrown down their packs and had run; each with an axe; into the woods to cut poles and to peel bark for their summer hunting cabin. As for the kind they use during their winter sojourn; they always carry these along; they are similar to those which they have in summer . . ." p. 308 –
No Reference Specified Use - Technology  structure made from bark and wooden poles for protection from mosquitos. "This is what the savages of this quarter do to protect themselves against them [mosquitos]. They erect a scaffolding; the floor of which consists only of poles; so that it is open to the air in order that the smoke of the fire made underneat may pass through; and drive away those little creatures; which cannot endure it; the savages lie down upon the poles; over which bark is spread to keep off rain" p. 147 –
No Reference Specified Use - Customs  bark string used in enemy prisoner torture p. 76 –
No Reference Specified Use - Technology  bark used to cover a lodge p. 47 –
No Reference Specified Use - Customs  used to build a fire during a healing ceremony. In the traditional story Medicine Men; Gabriel Godfroy probably relayed to Dunn that medicine men brought patients into their house; made a fire using tree-bark; stripped the patient down to their breech cloth and sat them down in a stool; danced around the fire and threw fire on the patients head but neer burned them. In this way patients were cured of seizure and other ailments
No Reference Specified Use - Material  there are 4 Miami items made in part or whole of bark; including a maple sugar basket; sap tub; and model canoes and paddles; all housed at the National Museum of the American Indian; Washington D.C.
No Reference Specified Use - Material  there is a piece of bark; of Miami origin; coated with vermillion; housed at the Glen Black Laboratory in Indiana
No Reference Specified Use - Technology  barks of trees used to make dyes for tattooing. "The colours made use of on these occasions [adorning a victim who is about to be sacrificed to the god of war; or painting dead persons] are the same employed in dyeing their skins; and are drawn from certain earths and from the barks of trees" p. 119 & p. 110 –
No Reference Specified Use - Technology  powdered bark from a certain tree; fat; and sometimes vermillion are used to preserve their hair. The hair is also sometimes wrapped in an eel or snakeskin; and braided; hanging down to their middle p. 120 & p. 110-111 –
No Reference Specified Use - Technology  corn storage is done by means of bark-lined holes in the ground; especially when they have to leave their village or to hide it from enemies; or by drying and hanging bunches of ears; or threshing. "Their corn and other fruits are preserved in repositories which they dig in the ground; and which are lined with large pieces of bark. Some of them leave maize in the ear; which is tufted like our onions; and hang them on long poles over the entry of their cabbins [sic]. Others thresh it out and lay it up in large baskets of bark; bored on all sides to hinder it from heating" p. 122 & p. 112-113 –
No Reference Specified Use - Material  women make items from bark p. 125 & p. 116 –
No Reference Specified Use - Technology  bark used to build cabins. " . . .built of bark; supported by a few posts; and sometimes coarsely plastered on the outside with clay . . . These cabbins are from fifteen to twenty foot broad; and sometimes a hundred in length. In this case they have several fires; each fire serving for a space of thirty feet. . . . The doors are only so many pieces of bark; suspended from the top like the ports of a ship" p. 127 & p. 118 –
No Reference Specified Use - Technology  pigeon trap made from a wooden frame with bark nets p. 74-75 –
No Reference Specified Use - Technology  bark used to draw map on; using charcoal
Botanical Sources  
Bark
No sources entered.
Related Sources  
Bark
Reference Source Notes Data Comments
No Reference Specified   Peoria observation of Nez Perces when they were held in Miami--"In the spring; when the bark would slip easily; they would select their tree and cut it and then carefully remove the bark and sew the ends together. This was waterproofed and across the center to hold the sides apart they would put a hole to make it as wide as they wanted." Interview with Edward Peckham –
No Reference Specified   during hunting; women collect poles and bark and makes a lodge as soon the man has prepared a place for the kettle two poles to support a cross-piece of wood and gone off to hunt p. 47 –
No Reference Specified   Algonquians use bark to fill in the wound made from an awl; during ear-piercing which is part of a ritual for five or six month old children. "After he [the juggler] has ended his pouch a flat bodkin made a bone; and a stout awl; and with the former pierces both ears of the child; and with the awl its nose. He fills the wounds in the ears with little rolls of bark; and in the nose he places the end of a small quill; and leaves it there until the wound is healed by a certain ointment with which he dresses it. When it has healed; he places in the aperture some down of the swan or the wild goose" p. 77 –
No Reference Specified   upon the death of a mans brother Algonquians; neighbors to the surviving brother offer the deceased two gifts in order to remove the tears of his relatives; a mat to lie on and a piece of bark to shelter the corpse from the weather. "In the speech which they [neighbors] accompany this gift they declare that it is made in order to wipe away the tears of his relatives; and that the mat which they give him is for him to lie on; or [that they give--Blairs note] a piece of bark to shelter his corpse from the injurious effects of the weather" p. 80 –