Species Detail


Scientific Name:  
Common Name:  
Myaamia Name:  
Material, Customs, Technology
Harvest Seasons:  
Fall, Spring
Dry Prairie grasslands, Wet Prairie grasslands with flooding, Deciduous Swamp no coniferous domts.
Geboe Property, Liebert Property
Growth Forms:  

Myaamia Archival Sources  
Reference Source Reference Type Archival Data Comments
Throwbridge, C.C 1938 Use - Material  Marmeeshauhkwauhenar is a game which uses a small wooden ball or stick which is thrown at a piece of brass or tin suspended from a very tall pole by a string.
Kohn, R.W; Lynwood, M.R; Edmunds, D; Mannering, M.; 1997 Use - Customs  a little white flag is placed at the grave of a deceased person for three days; because tradition says that it takes three days for the spirit to reach the place its going
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Use - Technology  wooden stick and board containing a "black berry" [hole] is used with dry; very fine grass crushed and used as kindling to start a fire. "One of the pieces of wood which they use to make a fire is of white cedar; which is the most combustible; a foot long more or less; according as they choose to make it; and as thick as two fingers. On one side; on the very edge; they make little holes; in which they make a notch. They put this bit of wood on some rotten wood or on some grass; dry and very fine; after taking care to crush it thoroughly in their hands. The other piece of wood is as thick as the little finger; it is a bit of a wood that has a black berry; which we call morette. When this wood is green it is very soft; and it is proportionately hard when it is dry. They shape the end to the size of the holes in the other piece of wood; into one of which they insert it; and by turning it in their hands without ceasing; they produce a sort of powder from which; after a very short time; one sees smoke issue; which shortly is converted into flame. This coming through the notch of which I have just spoken; falls on the rotten wood or dry grass; which is ignited"
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Use - Technology  three poles of wood were cut to make a large tripod from which they hung a big kettle for cooking
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Use - Technology  firewood. "He said that he was coming uup with a large number of engages; and that I [Deliette] should therefore sound the Illinois regarding abandonment of their village; for which they had shown a desire because their firewood was so remote and because it was difficult to get water upon the rock if they were attacked by the enemy"
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Use - Technology  firewood. " . . . it is always the women who supply the cabins and the firewood"
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Use - Technology  firewood used in cooking white water lily roots; macopines; in an underground oven with grass and bark protecting the roots
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Use - Customs  funeral. "If the dead man is a warrior who has loved the dance very much; the relatives assemble in his cabin to see what they can give. They count how many villages they represent and agree on the thing as best they can in order that none may be dissatisfied. They plant for this purpose three or four forks; according to the amount of merchandise there is to give; [in honor of the deceased]; and fix crosspieces on which they hang several kettles; guns; and hatchets. They send word to the chiefs of each village to send their warriors to dance for such a one who is dead in order that he may go to enjoy the bliss which all men will one day enjoy."
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Use - Technology  pieces of wood and Indian corn husks; and stones were thrown at the Jesuit fathers when they announced mass and catechisms
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Use - Customs  singing the calumet to other nations. Messengers are sent ahead as they approach another nation; to announce their arrival. These messengers are of "good cheer" and go to the residence of the song recipient and sing for four nights consecutively; all night; then they make a scaffold and place him on it and beat drums and shake their chichicoyas and sing all day long; pushing him back and forth as an honoring. A post is planted as a place to recite this mans exploits and then gifts are given."
Raudot, A.D. 1904 Use - Technology  still; line fishing done with a lure that is made with a hard and pointed piece of wood hidden inside half a fish; at the end of a line. The wood is inserted in a way that the fish does not see it. "By this means they take many trout"
Thwaites, R.G. (editor) 1966 Use - Customs  the calumet for peace was made from a polished red stone; and a hollowed out stick; two feet long about 2-3 cm diameter; and adorned with heads; necks; and large red and green feathers of beautiful birds. "It [calumet for peace] is fashioned from a red stone; polished like marble; and bored in such a manner that one end serves as a receptacle for the tobacco; while the other fits into the stem; this is a stick two feet long; as thick as an ordinary cane; and bored through the middle. It is ornamented with the heads and necks of various birds; whose plumage is very beautiful. To these they also add large feathers; --red; green; and other colors;--wherewith the whole is adorned. They have a great regard for it; because they look uponit as the calumet of the Sun; and; in fact; they offer it to the latter to smoke when they wish to obtain a calm; or rain; or fine weather"
Thwaites, R.G. (editor) 1966 Use - Technology  structure made from wooden poles for protection from mosquitos. "This is what the savages of this quarter do to protect themselves against them [mosquitos]. They erect a scaffolding; the floor of which consists only of poles; so that it is open to the air in order that the smoke of the fire made underneat may pass through; and drive away those little creatures; which cannot endure it; the savages lie down upon the poles; over which bark is spread to keep off rain"
Thwaites, R.G. (editor) 1903 Use - Material  dishes made of wood. "Their dishes are of wood; but their spoons are made of the bones of the skull of wild-oxen; which they cut so as to make them very convenient to eat their Sagamittee"
Tyner, J.W. 1968, September 9 Use - Material  wooden poles used to fasten tall grass to roof of corn drying shed. "I think she said when they first come from Indiana there was a tall grass that they covered their dry sheds with . . . To dry their corn or somethin like that. They tied it down with poles. Now thats amazing to me how that would turn [repel] water"
Gravier, J. ca. 1700 Use - Material  used to build bridges. "wood put in balance; unstable/unsteady bridge"
Gatschet, A.S. ca. 1895 Use - Medicinal  wood ashes thrown into a wound; by Fox Squirrel; to heal
No Reference Specified Use - Material  there are 19 Miami items made in part or whole of wood; including doctors cupping horn; stirring paddle; ladle; cradleboard; dice bowls; bow and arrows; moccasin awl handle; pipestem; war club; and human figures; all housed at the National Museum of the American Indian; Washington D.C.
No Reference Specified Use - Material  there are 3 Miami items made in part of whole of wood; and four more that are probably composed of wood at the Cranbrook Institute in Michigan. Items include a arrows; a bowl; bows; axe; hair tie board and spoon see attachment Cranbrook items; 30. MATERIAL: there are a number of Miami items made from wood; including a wooden comb; and sticks; housed at the Glen Black Laboratory in Indiana
No Reference Specified Use - Material/Customs  a bow was retrieved from Little Turtles grave and is housed at the Allen County Historical Society; in Fort Wayne; Indiana
No Reference Specified Use - Material  a wooden pestle; thought to be Miami; is housed at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City
Charlevoix, P. 1923 Use - Material  cradleboard made from wood. "The care which the mothers take of their children; whilst they are still in the cradle is beyond all expression; and proves in a very sensible manner; that we often spoil all; by the reflections which we add to the dictates of simple nature. They never leave them; they carry them every where about with them; and even when theya re ready to sink under the burthen with which they load themselves; the cradle of the child is held for nothing; and one would even think; that this additional weight were an ease to them and rendered them more agile. Nothing can be neater than these cradles in which the child lies as commodiously and softly as possible. But the infant is only made fast from the middle downwards: so that when the cradle is upright; the little creatures have their head and the half of the body hanging down; . . . This posture rendering the body supple and they are in fact of a port and stature . . ."
Charlevoix, P. 1923 Use - Material  small cups and other utensils made from wood
Charlevoix, P. 1923 Use - Material  posts to build platform for burning prisoners. "They begin with stripping the sufferer stark naked; they fix two posts in the ground; to which they make fast two cross piees; one two foot from the ground; and the other six or seven feet higher; and this is what they call a square. They cause the person who is to suffer to mount the first cross piece; to which they tie his feet at some distance from each other; they afterwards bind his hands to the two angles formed by the upper cross-piece; and iin this posture they burn him in all the different parts of his body"
Kenton, E 1925 Use - Technology  a wooden scaffolding with roof and floor is erected to provide shade on hot days. "They erect a scaffolding; the floor of which consists only of poles; so that it is open to the air in order that the smoke of the fire made underneath may pass through; and drive away those little creatures [mosquitos]; which cannot endure it; the savages lie down upon the poles; over which the bark is spread to keep off rain. These scaffoldings also serve them as a protection against The excessive and Unbearable heat of this country; for they lie in the shade; on the floor below; and thus protect themselves against the suns rays; enjoying the cool breeze that circulates freely through the scaffolding"
Rafert, S. 1989, August 24-25 Use - Technology  in historic times; Miami fishermen made a platform on the front of a fishing boat where a fire was built to serve as a torch for night fishing
Rafert, S. 1989, August 24-25 Use - Technology  pigeon trap made from a wooden frame with bark nets
Rafert, S. 1989, August 24-25 Use - Technology  old-style quail traps made with a hole and about twenty forked sticks; corn used as bait in the hole
Rafert, S. 1989, August 24-25 Use - Technology  wolf trap made by Julius; "Zeb" Bundy 1874-1930; AKA Julius Mongosa; step-son of John Bundy; using peeled poles. "Now; this Bundy trapped sheep killing dogs for a doctor one time. He peeled poles; he cut poles and peeled em; made a pen about six by ten; something like that; and he started building up like a log house--he notched em; and put one on top of eachother. He couldve nailed em; but I think he notched them. And each layer of poles was set in just a little bit; so that the walls wasnt straight up and down; they come slightly to a point. The entrance up at the top wasnt near as wide as down below. Then he put bait downin there; in his case he used sheep; probably. They also used a little bit of axle grease on top of it; itd be a hard oil today; just a little bit of it. And these wolves circled round and round there; and oned get to that trap; and theyre easy to climb up on there and jump down in there. But when they went to get back out; theyd jump up; and they had no place for the hind feet to go; and they swung under like my dog out there; and they couldnt jump out of there. They swung under like that; and there they were; and then you could shoot em with bow and arrow; or whatever; see"
Shea, J.G. 1903 Use - Material  wooden maces used in war. "Besides the bow; they use in war a kind of short pike; and wooden maces"
Blair, E 1911 Use - Technology  firewood was plentiful. "The Illiinois and their neighbors have no lack of wood for drying meat . . ."
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Horticultural Info  "In the spring; when the nation returns from its winter sojourn; which is at the end of March; or at the beginning of April; they busy themselves gathering wood so as to be able to do their planting at the beginning of May without interruption; for; although in this country the snow is not over four fingers deep and does not lie on the ground a week; and although the rivers are all open at the beginning of March; there are cold spells in May as severe as those of winter." ; 2. ; 3. ;
Dunn, J.P. Circa 1900 Horticultural Info  The Miami-Illinois term "kipinhsi" means to cut wood or brush
Gatschet, A.S. ca. 1895 Horticultural Info  The Miami-Illinois phrase "nila sakusamani kipintha" means I burn down the bushes"
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Use - Customs  funeral. Timber from an old canoe was used to laid dead body on and to act as walls to hold the earth in place along the sides of the graves. Favorite items were placed with the body in the grave; regardless of status; including a little kettle or pot; tobacco; corn; a calumet; bow and arrows. A forked stick is placed a foot from the deceased head and feet and stakes are set around to keep the animals out
N/A 1998-2006 Use - Customs  funeral. Deceased placed into coffin-like enclosures made of bark. Prior to the burial there was singing and danced for about 24 hours; and dancers had gourd rattles. After this 24 hour period; the body was buried with "indian wheat" Joutel and a pot to cook it in so the person would not be hungry during the journey
N/A 1998-2006 Use - Customs  funeral. Body buried in the halves of a hollowed out tree; one half held the body; the other was put on top. The two halves were bound together with rope or anchored to the ground with crosspieces
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Use - Customs  funeral. "If the deceased has been a chief of war parties that have brought in prisoners they plant a tree forty or fifty feet long; which several men go to fetch at the request of the relatives; who give a feast. From this tree they peel the bark and color it with the shades of red and black and make pictures of the chief and the prisoners he has taken; tie a bundle of small logs representing as many persons as he has killed; which they also fasten to the stake and then they plant it beside the tomb"
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Use - Customs  war death song. Honoring those killed in battle after victory. "These [warriors] sing their death song; holding in one hand a stick ten or twelve feet long; filled with feathers from all the kinds of birds that the warriors killed on the road"
N/A Use - Customs  funeral. Story about a coffin made for a soldier that died on the Peoria reservation. "They marked a hickory tree at the head of the grave with marks three feet from the ground and a chinquapin oak at the foot of the grave near the ground."
Throwbridge, C.C 1938 Use - Customs  funeral. "Four persons; not related to the deceased are appointed by the relatives to carry the body to the grave. This is prepared by digging to the depth of two and a half or three feet; and is lined with planks or bark or when near the whites the body is put in a coffin.. The corpse is followed to the grave by the near relatives first; who are joined by those more distant and by the friends of the deceased."
Throwbridge, C.C 1938 Use - Customs  funeral. It was customary; for deceased male or females; to put into the grave some meat; a little bark-cup of water at the feet; and his rifle or her silver; or other valuables.
Throwbridge, C.C 1938 Use - Material  stick used in playing a ball game called Pekitehomingk
Throwbridge, C.C 1938 Use - Material  Sansawingee is a game played with a wooden bowl; and six plumb stones; one side black and the other white. Very popular; and much betting is involved; sometimes losing all they have; including horses and guns.
Throwbridge, C.C 1938 Use - Material  Pekitarhunar Pukwauhkoan is a game played with a wooden ball; perforated with two holes to make it sing as it flies through the air. As many as 600 people can play at a time in a field delimited by four poles upon which hang the articles at stake in the betting.
Botanical Sources  
No sources entered.
Related Sources  
Reference Source Notes Data Comments
Throwbridge, C.C 1938   The women are in charge of cutitng the wood with an axe; carrying it to the lodge; making the fire and cooking the food
Charlevoix, P. 1923   Charlevoix notes a procedure by which the Potawatomi "Outagamies" determined the fate of prisoner. "Some time ago; a Frenchman having been taken by the Outagamies; these barbarians held a council on their march to determine what they should do with him. The result of their deliberation was to throw a stick upon a tree; and if it remained there to burn the prisoner; but not to throw it above a certain number of times. Happily for the captive; the stick fell always to the ground; though the tree was extremely bushy"
Blair, E 1911   Perrot described the creation story of Algonquians; including a large raft made of wood; carrying all the animals that existed at the time of creation. "They believe that before the earth was created there was nothing but water; that upon this vast extent of water floated a great wooden raft; upon which were all the animals; of various kinds; which exist on earth; and the chief of these; they say; was the Great Hare"
Blair, E 1911   Perrot described the making of bow and arrow by the first men; in the creation story; using wood; bark and nettle cordage. "These first men; I say; whom hunger had weakened; inspired by the Great Hare with an intuitive idea; broke off a branch from a small tree; made a cord with the fibers of the nettle; scraped the bark from a piece of a bough with a sharp stone; and armed its end with another sharp stone; to serve them as an arrow; and thus they formed a bow [and arrows] with which they killed small birds"
Blair, E 1911   Perrot described the use of soft wood for making fires; in the Algonquian creation story. ". . .they tried to make fire; in order to cook their meat; and; trying to get it; they took for that purpose hard wood; but without success; and [finally] they used softer wood; which yielded them fire"
Blair, E 1911   Algonquian women; in general; were responsible for gathering firewood and making bark dishes. The men made the wooden dishes. "The obligations of women are to . . . furnish firewood . . . They apply themselves to fashioning dishes of bark; and their husbands make the wooden dishes"
Blair, E 1911   Algonquians use a light piece of wood to make a cradleboard
Blair, E 1911   Algonquians use of wooden scaffolds on which to place the deceased
Blair, E 1911   Algonquians play a game called crosse; played with a wooden ball and racket with a netted end; like a tennis racket. "There is among them a certain game; called crosse; which has much likenes to our game of long tennis . . . You will see them all equipped with the crosse--which is a light club; having at one end a broad flat part that is netted like a racket; the ball that they use in playing is of wood; and shaped very nearly like a turkeys egg"
Blair, E 1911   Algonquians use a wooden bowl in the dice game. "The savages have also a certain game of dice;in which the dice-box is a wooden dish; quite round; empty; and very smooth on both sides"
Gravier, J. ca. 1700   Father Gravier listed the term "katookwakami?i" for the wood of an unknown tree and "cat8c8acamina" for the fruit of an unknown tree" but it is unclear whether these terms are to indicate ANY unknown wood of fruit; or one particular tree that was unknown to the speaker
Gatschet, A.S. ca. 1895   The Miami term "pakianakgi" or "pakianakki"; mean the limb of a tree or bush