Species Detail

Zea mays L.
Corn; Maize numerous varieties


Scientific Name:  
Zea mays L.
Common Name:  
Corn; Maize numerous varieties
Myaamia Name:  
miincipi generic
Uses:  
Customs, Technology
Harvest Seasons:  
Undetermined
Habitats:  
Undetermined
Locations:  
Seven Pillars
Growth Forms:  
Undetermined

Myaamia Archival Sources  
Zea mays L.
Reference Source Reference Type Archival Data Comments
N/A 1998-2006 Related Info  On April 12, 2002 and May 7th, 2002; the annual planting of white corn took place at the Tribal farm outside Commerce; OK
Rafert, S. 1989, August 24-25 Description 
Gravier, J. ca. 1700 Horticultural Info  A reddened stick was shaken as a way to guard a crop field.
Charlevoix, P. 1923 Use - Food  bread made.
Kenton, E 1925 Use - Food  corn cultivated.
Kenton, E 1925 Use - None  ladles; used for eating sagamite; among other things; were made out of the skulls of cattle.
Kenton, E 1925 Use - Food  sagamite and corn bread offered to visitors.
Rafert, S. 1989, August 24-25 Use - Food  grown for hominy.
Rafert, S. 1989, August 24-25 Use - Food  Miami white corn was cut off the cob green and dried on the
Rafert, S. 1989, August 24-25 Use - Technology  old-style quail traps made with a hole and about twenty forked sticks; corn used as bait in the hole
Allouez, C.J. 1903 Use - Food  cultivated corn as a staple.
N/A 1998-2006 Description  Miami white corn--has very starchy consistency when in milk stage; will make your fingers white with milk when kernels are crushed; unique appearance with deep red roots and red silks; long ear of only eight rows so it looks skinny
Gatschet, A.S. ca. 1895 Use - Food  corn flour made of white and yellow corn.
Dunn, J.P. 1919 Description 
No Reference Specified Use - Food  corn meal made.
Dunn, J.P. 1919 Description 
Dunn, J.P. Circa 1900 Use - Food  uncooked hominy is called
No Reference Specified Use - Material  husks used to make baskets. Cob drilled out to make pipe to smoke corn silk
Tippman, D. 2005, February 27 Use - Food  cultivated and eaten
Dunn, J.P. Circa 1900 Use - Technology  fodder
Filson, J. 1793 Use - Food  corn cultivated in large tracts and made into traditional dishes. Harvesting celebrated. General Wilkiinson and his U.S. military expedition; attacked the Indian village near the mouth of the Eel River on the Wabash in 1791;
N/A 1998-2006 Use - Technology  trade white corn a prized trade item
N/A 1998-2006 Use - Food  Miami white corn part of contemporary quiche recipe
No Reference Specified Use - Food  popcorn; peenkiteeki miincipi; lit. corn that explodes by heat
Dorin, G, Sr. 2004, August 10 Use - Food  Miami corn cultivated. Seeds from Bruce Thorington Miami
N/A 1998-2006 Use - Food  white corn meal makes corn mush; a traditional dish in Barbara Mullins household
Dunn, J.P. Circa 1900 Use - Food  siinipikiinkweehaminki probable phonemic from Costa 2006;
Rafert, S. 1989, August 24-25 Use - Food  corn dried on a rack.
N/A 1998-2006 Horticultural Info  White corn is open pollinated and must be protected from cross pollination with other varieties/hybrids; when characterisitcs other than those of the traditional white corn are noticed e.g. dents; those seeds are not kept for planting
N/A 1998-2006 Use - Food  Barbara Mullins grandmother; Ethel Goodbo Gamble made hominy in their Commerce home; by putting wood ashes into a bucket; filling it with water; and letting it sit. The water became lye-water; as they called it. Corn would then be placed into the bucket and the water would do its work--loosening the hull from the corn and swelling the corn up. Then the corn was rinsed in clear water many times. This was used to make edible dried corn
N/A 1998-2006 Horticultural Info  soldiers reported marching through five miles of Miami corn fields--being able to see Miami cornfields on both sides of the Maumee River for as far as one could see
N/A 1998-2006 Use - Food  Miami corn dishes: kitasakani parched corn; mahtohkatwi cooked hominy; mihtohkatoopowi corn soup; and corn bread
Rafert, S. 1989, August 24-25 Horticultural Info  Fish; small suckers that were bony; were put with hills of corn; one per hill
Blair, E 1911 Use - Food 
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Horticultural Info 
Blair, E 1911 Use - Food  prepared with milk.
Dillon, J.B. 1859 Horticultural Info  General Anthony Wayne wrote:
Dunn, J.P. 1919 Use - Food  corn made into hominy.
Kenton, E 1925 Horticultural Info 
Lamb, E.W; Shultz, L.W. 1964 Use - Food  parched corn.
Dillon, J.B. 1859 Horticultural Info  corn planted along banks of Wabash.
Kenton, E 1925 Use - Food  sagamite is a meal of indian corn boiled in water and seasoned with fat.
Throwbridge, C.C 1938 Horticultural Info  July is the Hilling corn moon; or Utshetsheekutaa; or Utsheketomingk; August is the time when the corn is fit to be eaten; or Keeshingwaa
Throwbridge, C.C 1938 Use - Food  men mostly hunt but help the women in planting and hoeing of corn
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Horticultural Info  At the end of March or the beginning of April; they gather wood to be able to plant at the beginning of May without being interrupted by having to gather wood to endure cold spells in May. . . . When they wish to finish their sowing early; they offer a feast of flat sides of beef with mixed corn inside of it; and invite as many women as they need to spade up their fields. These do not refuse such invitations; and if any of those invited fail to come; they come next day to offer their excuses and to tell the reasons which prevent their coming. At the beginning of June they hill up their corn; and after that the village sets out on the buffalo hunt.
Throwbridge, C.C 1938 Use - Unknown 
Gravier, J. ca. 1700 Horticultural Info  Corn was harvested communally and taken into the Miami dwellings. It was spread out and then gathered up again
Thwaites, R.G. (editor) 1903 Use - Food  corn storage technique.
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Horticultural Info  The Illinois tribe corn cycle began at the end of March or early April when people were returning from winter camps to summer villages. An abundance of wood was gathered by the women so they would not neet to gather during corn planting in early May. Most of the corn was planted and hilled up by the first of June and at that time most villagers went on a buffalo hunt for up to six weeks. After that; at about the end of July; the first corn was harvested and dried. There was a second harvest at the end of August as well
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Use - Food 
Thwaites, R.G. (editor) 1903 Horticultural Info 
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Use - Food 
Thwaites, R.G. (editor) 1903 Horticultural Info  Timing of corn planting in relationship to hunting:
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Use - Customs  funeral.
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934 Use - Technology  pieces of wood and Indian corn husks; and stones were thrown at the Jesuit fathers when they announce mass and catechisms
Charlevoix, P. 1923 Horticultural Info  The women tend the corn fields; primarily. --
Dunn, J.P. 1902 Use - Food  in 1746; the Weas at the mouth of the Ohio [modern day Cairo; Illinois] were reported to be cultivating corn [referred to as
Charlevoix, P. 1923 Horticultural Info  Corn storage is done by means of lined holes in the ground; especially when they have to leave their village or to hide it from enemies; or by drying and hanging bunches of ears; or threshing.
Tyner, J.W. 1968, September 9 Use - Food  corn drying sheds were used and covered with tall grasses to keep rain out.
Le Clercq, C. 1903 Horticultural Info  Corn is stored in caches for use in summer.
Himes, S. 1996, June 6 Use - Food  dry corn was cooked by first rinsing in cool water; putting rinsed corn in a large pot and covering with water; then cooking over low heat for 20-30 minutes. Seasoning was added for flavor
Douay, A. 1687 Horticultural Info  Corn is planted two times a year.
Tyner, J.W. 1968, September 9 Use - Food  hominy made from corn.
Gatschet, A.S. ca. 1895 Horticultural Info  listed a number of corn terms relating to its stages of growth and cultivation: kiisiinkwe--just growing; not yet ripe literally; growing; p799; kishingwe--July literally; roasting ear moon; p799; kishingwe kilswa--June by the Miamis p1321; kiniisiinkwee--becoming large and growing to maturity p800
Carlson. K 1996, June 15 Use - Food/Customs  corn soup and hominy are considerd feast foods in certain occasions.
Dunn, J.P. Circa 1900 Horticultural Info  Dunn noted the term kiisiinkwia; taken down from Finley Peoria meaning August corn filled out
Carlson. K 1996, June 15 Use - Medicinal  component of medicine bag.
Gatschet, A.S. ca. 1895 Horticultural Info  Gatschet ca. 1895 listed the Miami-Illinois term
Himes, S. 1996, June 6 Use - Food  method of drying corn.
Gonella, M.P. 2003-2005 Horticultural Info  Miami corn sometimes grows short; sometimes tall
Shoemaker, G. 2004, May 28 Use - Technology  red worms found inside cobs of ears of corn on low parts of corn plant were obtained and used as live fishing bait
Wheeler-Voegelin, E. 1934-1985 Horticultural Info  At a Miami village at the head of the Maumee River; a U.S. military detachment found the Miamis had burnt their town; but still existing were
Olds, Julie, Olds, Dustin and Dani Tippman 1999 Use - Food 
Wheeler-Voegelin, E. 1934-1985 Horticultural Info  At the Wea village near the mouth of Wea Creak; on the middle Wabash; Weas had their summer village and extensive cornfields for over 72 years 1717-1790
Baldwin, D 1997, August Use - Food  corn cooked in a large black kettle; also used for vegetable soup and chili
Gravier, J. ca. 1700 Horticultural Info  Gatschet ca. 1895 recorded that when wiihkoowia; the whippoorwill is first heard in spring; indicates the time of corn cultivation for the Miami; where its call is ziwashikoko meaning go to planting in Miami
Tippman, D. 1999, November 11 Use - Food  hominy made from corn [not necessarily Miami varieties]. The shelled corn was covered with wtaer; a little bit of lye; from wood ashes; was added to soften the husk of the corn
No Reference Specified Horticultural Info  Dunn 1909 lists a term
Tippman, D. 1999, November 11 Use - Customs  corn silks smoked occasionally with corn cob pipe
Gatschet, A.S. ca. 1895 Use - Food  corn used during pork curing
Gatschet, A.S. ca. 1895 Use - Food  parched corn brought on a hunt; cooked by boiling and when almost done; adding beef tallow. The traditional story Wilaktwa tells of some Miami on a hunt; and cooking this dish when some enemies came upon their camp. Wilaktwa asked them to wait and eat with them first before they fought. When the soup was heated up he threw it in their faces and on them; blinding them all. Then he beat them to death.
Gatschet, A.S. ca. 1895 Use - Food  modern traditional crop. In the traditional story of Young Thunder William Pecongah; he describes the crops he had growing on his land 160 acres of reserve in central Indiana.
Charlevoix, P. 1923 Use - Food  corn grown on fertile bottomlands of St. Joseph River
Charlevoix, P. 1923 Use - Customs  a harvest festival concludes the corn and other crop harvesting. The festival and feast is held in the night
Charlevoix, P. 1923 Use - Food  green corn prepared for village guests of distinction
Charlevoix, P. 1923 Use - Food  sagamity is made from corn.
Charlevoix, P. 1923 Use - Food  rotten corn eaten as a
Botanical Sources  
Zea mays L.
Reference Source Notes Data Comments
Steyermark, J.A. 1963   Occurring as a cultivated species and occasionally as an escape throughout eastsern and western Miami lands
N/A 1998-2006   Miami corn was and is unique to the Great Lakes Region
Related Sources  
Zea mays L.
Reference Source Notes Data Comments
N/A 1998-2006   Miami white corn was planted in the spring 2001 by Mildred Walker and other tribal members at Tribal farm outside Commerce; OK
Pease, Theodore Calvin and Raymond C. Werner 1934   Women helped tend the corn; which could be used as a focus of attack of enemy tribes:
No Reference Specified   Traditional story regarding origin of Miami white corn.
Clark, J.E. 1993   The Shawnee have a dance called the Bread Dance; held in April. Dance preceded by a ball game played etween the men and women; and the twenty kernels used in scoring were planted by one of the women chiefs; after which all the corn could be planted
Rafert, S. 1989, August 24-25   Miami white corn was grown by Anna Marks Lora Siders parents; sister of Joe Mongosa and other Mongosas; and LaMoines parents. This corn stopped being grown when the sweet corn came along. His brother made hominy out of it; called it squaw corn.
Throwbridge, C.C 1938   There were some Miami men that assumed the dress and character of women; associated with other women; and took equal share in planting; hoeing and gathering of corn; and in other domestic activities.
Kohn, R.W; Lynwood, M.R; Edmunds, D; Mannering, M.; 1997   Corn preparation: The Delaware would bring the corn in by the wagon loads; and drop it into boiling water for about three minutes; then dumped onto clean wagon sheets and husked and cut by young folks. They would take a spoon and with the handle down; press down right between the rows; resulting in whole kernel corn. They would do this all day long; and if the got a whole row out without it breaking; then they got to go around and get a kiss from whoever we wanted. The Delawares did it differently; cutting their corn and then scraping the cob; as did the Potawatomies; but just for certain dishes.The regular everyday corn was always whole kernel
Kohn, R.W; Lynwood, M.R; Edmunds, D; Mannering, M.; 1997   The Delaware have a number of types of corn; for different uses; including dried; hard corn for corn soup; corn that is scraped off and let set for bread
Kohn, R.W; Lynwood, M.R; Edmunds, D; Mannering, M.; 1997   Billie Smiths Shawnee father raised corn; and would harvest the corn stalks in the fall. He would fashion a birds body out of corn stalks and make it so wings came out of the center